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Lesson 4 Outline

· Revise Lessons 1, 2 and 3 Reading and writing sentences and question sentences using blended and new words

· Introduce six more commonly used new words: ‘go, no, to, do, yes, there, ‘and break them into their sounds and spellings.

· Pair work to create sentences and question sentences using the new words, ‘go, no, to, do, yes, there,

· Matching the phrases “here is, here are, there is, there are” in sentences and question sentences.

· Introducing Homophones by breaking them into their sounds and spellings and working in pairs to match them.

· Introducing verbs. Reading and writing all parts of verbs, gap filling in sentences and question sentences.

· Alphabetical order with new words

· Revision of blended and new words by reading and writing sentences and question sentences.

See Tutor Notes for more details and guidance about teaching this lesson


Lesson 4 Plan

Teaching Aims

Teaching Aims (concepts and topics covered)

· Build on aims from previous lessons via revision in Exercise 1: Raise Learners’ awareness of structuring sentences and question sentences using punctuation, blended and broken – down words.

· Revisit the concept of breaking down commonly – used New Words with the six new words in individual exercises.

· Build on phrases and demonstrate their usage in sentences and question sentences

· Build class relationships with Pair Work

· Introduce Homophones. Highlight and demonstrate their usage in sentences and question sentences.

· Introduce verbs. Highlight and demonstrate their usage in sentences and question sentences.

· Build learners’ alphabetical order skills

· Build learners’ knowledge and understanding of concepts from Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Learning Resources

· Citizen Literacy Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· m – a – t – s – p – i – n grapheme cut-outs [1 – 2 – 5]

· Tutor web platform

· Learner smartphone app

· Print out the alphabet separately on card, Resource [2-3-1], if possible, as Learners will be returning to this resource throughout the Citizen Literacy course. This is available in a larger size as an editable Word document from the Citizen Literacy website.

· /m/ /a/ /t/ /s/ /p/ /i/ /n/ sound, word, & image list, Resource [1-2-3]

· Learner Folder to contain handouts – prefer to use a clear plastic folder for durability

Preparation for Lesson

· Ensure Learners have their Learner Folder to contain handouts.

· Ensure Learners have Citizen Literacy Workbook for Lesson 4

· Ensure Learners have their m – a – t – s – p – i – n grapheme cut-outs in their folders

· Ensure Learners have their /m/ /a/ /t/ /s/ /p/ /i/ /n/ sound, word, & image list in their folders

Exercise 1: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, and 3. Reading and writing sentences.

[Exercise 1: Read and Write Sentences]

Learning Outcome Exercise 1

· The Learner will be able to read and write sentences in Resource [4-1-1], made up of words they will have learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3, choosing the correct part of the verb to be,

· The Learner will be able to compose and write two sentences using words from Resource [4-1-2].

Skills

Listening, speaking, reading, writing

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor asks learners to read out the sentences in Resource [4-1-1] made up of words they will have learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3, using the right form of the verb to be for the sentence to make sense. Then they are sked to write the correct sentence in the space provided.

2. Teaching Tip: For sentences 1 – 4 the Tutor explains and demonstrates that the learners have to choose the right form of the verb ‘to be’ for the sentence to make sense and then write the correct version in the space provided

3. Teaching Tip: The Tutor can advise the learners to try breaking down the sounds of any words they are unsure of. Tutor provides feedback.

4. Teaching Tip: By this time in the course, we hope the Learners feel comfortable and trusting in the Tutor and their fellow Learners that they feel confident to read out in class. Facilitating this trusting group relationship is an important part of the Tutor’s role in an Adult Literacy programme. For a further discussion of this aspect of the Tutor’s role please see the Tutor Notes

5. Activity: The Tutor asks the Learners to create their own sentences using words from Resource [4-1-2]. Teaching Tip: Tutor encourages the learners to read out the words in this Resource first to help them form their own sentences, if they need to – do not labour the point if learners are confident.

6.  Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· Learners read and then write the sentences in Resource [4-1-1] using the correct form of the verb to be.

· Learners read the words in the grid in Resource [4-1-2] and then composes and writes two sentences using the words front this Resource.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.1 Completing a sentence using words from Lessons, 1, 2 and 3

Exercise 2: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, and 3. Reading and writing question sentences

[Exercise 2: Read and Write Questions Sentences]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to read and write question sentences in Resource [4- 2- 1], made up of words they will have learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3, choosing the correct part of the verb ‘to be’.

· The Learner will be able to compose and write two question sentences using words from Resource [4- 2- 2].

Skills

Listening, speaking, reading, writing

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, 1 Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor asks learners to read out the question sentences in Resource [4- 2- 1] made up of words they will have learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3, using the right form of the verb ‘to be’ for the question sentence to make sense. Then they are asked to write the correct sentence in the space provided.

2. Teaching Tip: For question sentences 1 – 4 the Tutor explains and demonstrates that the learners have to choose the right form of the verb ‘to be’ for the question sentence to make sense and then write the correct version in the space provided

3. Teaching Tip: The Tutor can advise the learners to try breaking down the sounds of any words they are unsure of. Tutor provides feedback.

4. Teaching Tip: By this time in the course, we hope the Learners feel comfortable and trusting in the Tutor and their fellow Learners that they feel confident to read out in class. Facilitating this trusting group relationship is an important part of the Tutor’s role in an Adult Literacy programme. For a further discussion of this aspect of the Tutor’s role please see the Tutor Notes

5. Activity: The Tutor asks the Learners to create their own question sentences using words from Resource [4-2-2]. Teaching Tip: Tutor encourages the learners to read out the words in this Resource to help them form their own question sentences if they need to – do not labour the point if learners are confident.

6.  Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· Learners read and then write the question sentences in Resource [4-2-1] using the correct form of the verb ‘to be’.

· Learners read the words in the grid in Resource [4-2-2] and then composes and writes two question sentences using the words from this Resource.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.2 Completing question sentences using words from Lessons, 1, 2 and 3

Exercise 3: Introducing the new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, and breaking them down into their sounds to spell them.

[Exercise 3: New Words Read and Write]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to break down the new words, ‘go,’ no,’ ‘to,’ ‘do,’ there,’ yes,’ into their sounds to spell them.

· The Learner will be able to read and write the new words, ‘go’, no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘ there,’

· yes,’

Skills

Breaking Down, Reading, Writing,

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: The Tutor asks the Learners to turn to Resource [4-3-1]. The Tutor demonstrates breaking down the new words into their spellings (second row) and then demonstrates breaking down the new words into their sounds (third row) using this Resource.

2. Activity: The Tutor asks the Learners to write the new words in the fourth row of the Resource

3. Teaching Tip: Remind Learners about the value of breaking words down into their sounds to help them to read and spell them

Learner Activities

· The Learners break down the new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’ into their sounds to spell them.

· The Learners read and write the new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.3 Introducing these new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.4 Breaking down the new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.5 Listening to and selecting the new words: ‘go,’ no,’ ‘to,’ ‘do,’ there,’ yes.’

Exercise 4: Reading and Writing the new words, ‘go’, no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, and Pair Work

[Exercise 4: Read and Write Pair Work]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to read the new ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, in sentences.

· The Learner will be able to read the new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’ in question sentences.

· The Learner will be able to work in pairs to compose and write three sentences using the new words and other words

Skills

Reading, writing, speaking, listening, pair work.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor asks the Learners to read out the sentences in Resource [4-4-1] to the class. Teaching Tip: The Tutor reminds the Learners to break down any words they are unsure of.

2. Activity: Tutor asks the Learners to read out the question sentences in Resource [4-4-2] to the class. Teaching Tip: The Tutor reminds the Learners to break down any words they are unsure of.

3. Activity: Tutor puts the Learners into pairs and asks them to turn to Resource [4-4-3]. The Tutor then asks the learners to use the words in this Resource to compose and write 3 sentences that make sense. Teaching Tip: An example sentence has already been created.

Learner Activities Summary

· Learners reads the sentences in Resource [4-4-1] to their tutor.

· Learners read the question sentences in Resource [4-4-2] to their tutor.

· Learners work in pairs to compose and write three sentences using the grid of words in Resource [4-4-3].

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.6 Completing a sentence with these new words: ‘go,’ no,’ ‘to,’ ‘do,’ there,’ yes.’

· Activity 4.7 Writing a sentence in the correct order to make sense using these new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.8 Reading and speaking sentences that use these new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.9 Completing a question sentence with these new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.10 Writing a question sentence in the correct order using these new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.11 Reading and speaking question sentences that use these new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’.

· Activity 4.12 Reading and speaking sentences that use these new words ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, and adding an answer.

Exercise 5: Read, match, and write sentences using the phrases; ‘here is’, ‘here are’, ‘there is’, ‘there are.’

[Exercise 5: Read, Match, and Write]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to demonstrate the correct use of these phrases in sentences and question sentences that make sense using the correct part of the verb ‘to be’ that indicates either a singular or a plural item or items in a sentence

· The Learner will be able to correctly match the 5 given phrases that begin a sentence with the 5 given possible ends of sentence to make sense.

· The Learner will then write these five correct sentences.

Skills

Reading, writing, listening.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor demonstrates to learners that ‘there is, ‘and ‘here is’ refer to singular items and ‘there are, and ‘here are,’ refer to plural items in Resources [4 – 5- 1]. Teaching Tip: the numbers 1 and 2+ refer to singular and plural

2. Activity: The Tutor asks the Learners for their own examples, using these phrases in sentences.

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-5-2] the Tutors ask learners to match both halves of the 5 given sentences.

4. Teaching Tip: the first example of, ‘There are Pam and Stan,’ has already been completed.

5. Teaching Tip: The Tutor can advise the learners to use a pencil to draw the matching arrows, just in case of errors.

6. Teaching Tip: Tutor asks the learners to read out loud the pairs of phrases and parts of the sentences to see if they make sense.

7. Activity: Tutor ask the learners to write their correct five sentences out in full in Resource [4- 5- 3]

8. Teaching Tip: The first sentence is included in Resource [4-5-3] to help your learners.

9. Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner demonstrates the correct use of these phrases in sentences and question sentences that make sense using the correct part of the verb ‘to be’ that indicates either a singular or a plural item or items in a sentence

· The Learner matches the 5 given phrases that begin a sentence with the 5 given possible ends of sentence to make sense.

· The Learner writes these five correct sentences.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 3:17 Working with verbs.

· Activity 3:18 Completing a sentence

· Activity 3:19 Writing a sentence in the correct order


Exercise 6: Reading and writing homophones, ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two.

[Exercise 6: Homophones]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to read and write the homophones ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two.

· The Learner will be able to break down the homophones ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two.’ into their sounds to spell them.

· The Learner will be able to recognise these similar words in context by reading

· The Learner will be able to read and write these similar words in sentences.

· The Learner will be able to demonstrate the correct use and spelling of homophones in context by reading and writing.

Skills

Reading, writing, listening. breaking down.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor demonstrates to learners that there are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings and that these words are called ‘homophones’. Tutor reads out the words in Resource [4-6-1] as examples and explains their differences in meaning. Teaching Tip: Tell your students that many, many people get these words mixed up, so they are not alone.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-6-1] the Tutor asks the Learners to break the three homophones down into their sounds and write in the space provided

3. Activity: Tutor reads out the sentences in Resource [4-6-2] to offer learners a context and meaning for each homophone.

4. Teaching tip: Ask learners for their own examples of a sentence using each homophone

5. Activity: Tutor asks learners to look at Resource [4-6-3] and read out sentences in the left-hand column and then write them in the right-hand column. Teaching Tip: the homophones are highlighted in red

6. Activity: Using Resource [4-6-4] Tutor asks learners to select the correct homophone for use in each of the given four sentences.

7.  Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner breaks down the homophones ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two.’ into their sounds to spell them and writes them.

· The Learner reads and writes the homophones ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two.’ in sentences.

· The Learner recognises these similar words in context by reading

· The Learner reads and writes these similar words in sentences.

· The Learner will be able to demonstrate the correct use and spelling of homophones in context by reading and writing.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4: 13 Introducing different words that sound the same

· Activity 4: 14 Breaking down the new words that sound the same

· Activity 4: 15 Completing a sentence with words that sound the same

· Activity 4:16 Writing a sentence in the correct order using words that sound the same

· Activity 4:17 Matching sentences with words that sound the same

· Activity 4: 18 Reading and speaking sentences with words that sound the same

Exercise 7: Reading and writing homophones, ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two. Pair Work.

[Exercise 7: Homophones Pair Work]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to recognise these homophones and their meanings in context by reading; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two’, as individuals

· The Learner will be able to read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two’, and their meanings in context by reading and working with a partner

· The Learner will be able to read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, and their meanings in context by reading in sentences and working with a partner

· The Learner will be able to read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, and their meanings in context by reading in question sentences and working with a partner

Skills

Reading, writing, listening, speaking.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor reminds learners that words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings are called ‘homophones’. Tutor reads out the sentences in Resource [4-7-1] as examples and explains the differences in meaning of each homophone – which is highlighted in red. Teaching Tip: Tell your students that many, many people get these words mixed up, so they are not alone.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-7-1] the Tutor asks the Learners to read the sentences and then provide example sentences of their own that use one of the homophones, to evidence comprehension of the different meanings of the homophones.

3. Activity: Matching Pairs of Homophones: Tutor hands out large, printed homophones based on Resource [4-7-2], Teaching Tip: Tutor needs to create and print the homophones in a large size (try using 150 size in Word and use comic sans typeface). Tutor puts Learners into pairs and gives each pair 2 copies of the large, printed homophones face down on the table between the Learners. Tutor then tells each pair to take turns in picking up 2 of the cards and turning them over in the hope of finding a matching pair of homophones. Teaching Tip: Demonstrate this process to the Learners first as a way of calming and preparing them – as some Learners can find this challenging. When a Learner finds a matching pair, they have to try and create and speak a sentence to their partner that uses that homophone. Teaching Tip: This activity is a good way of getting the students to work together to build peer support and removes the stress of speaking out to the whole class.

4. Activity: Matching Pairs of Sentences that use the same Homophone: Tutor hands out large, printed sentences based on Resource [4-7-3], Teaching Tip: Tutor needs to create and print the sentences in a large size (try using 40 size in Word and use comic sans typeface and print in landscape format not portrait, so each sentence can be cut up into one single piece). Tutor puts Learners into the same pairs as the previous activity and gives each pair 2 copies of the large, printed cut out sentences from Resource [4-7-3) face down on the table between the Learners i.e. 8 sentences in total. Teaching Tip: Demonstrate this process to the Learners first as a way of calming and preparing them – as some Learners can find this challenging. The Tutor then tells each pair to take turns in picking up 2 of the sentences and turning them over in the hope of finding a matching pair of the same sentence – that use the same homophone (e.g. ‘I go to the pub’). When a Learner finds a matching pair, they have to read and speak that sentence to their partner. Teaching Tip: This activity is a good way of getting the students to work together to build peer support and removes the stress of speaking out to the whole class.

5. Activity: Matching Pairs of Question Sentences that use the same Homophone: Tutor hands out large, printed question sentences based on Resource [4-7-4], Teaching Tip: Tutor needs to create and print the question sentences in a large size (try using 40 size in Word and use comic sans typeface and print in landscape format not portrait, so each sentence can be cut up into one single piece). Tutor puts Learners into the same pairs as the previous activity and gives each pair 2 copies of the large, printed cut out question sentences from Resource [4-7-4) face down on the table between the Learners i.e. 8 sentences in total. Teaching Tip: Demonstrate this process to the Learners first as a way of calming and preparing them – as some Learners can find this challenging. The Tutor then tells each pair to take turns in picking up 2 of the question sentences and turning them over in the hope of finding a matching pair of the same question sentence – that use the same homophone (e.g. ‘Do I go to the pub?’). When a Learner finds a matching pair, they have to read and speak that question sentence to their partner. Teaching Tip: This activity is a good way of getting the students to work together to build peer support and removes the stress of speaking out to the whole class.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner will recognise these homophones and their meanings in context by reading; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, as individuals

· The Learner will read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, and their meaning in context by reading and working with a partner

· The Learner will read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, and their meaning in context by reading in sentences and working with a partner

· The Learner will read these homophones; ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two, and their meaning in context by reading in question sentences and working with a partner

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4:17 Matching sentences with words that sound the same

· Activity 4: 18 Reading and speaking sentences with words that sound the same

Exercise 8: Introducing verbs and parts of verbs. Listening, Reading, and Writing.

[Exercise 8: Verbs from Lessons 1 – 4]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to recognise these verbs in sentences; ‘to be’, ‘to sit’, ‘to go’, ‘to do’, and their verb parts (e.g., ‘I am’ is part of the verb ‘to be’ – see Resource [4-8-3] for a full list of all the parts of these verbs)

· The Learner will be able to associate the correct use of these verbs and their parts in sentences.

Skills

Reading, writing, listening, speaking.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor explains and demonstrates the concepts of verbs to the Learners, using Resource [4-8-1] and Resource [4-8-2] Teaching Tip: Tutor asks Learners to create and speak their own example sentences that use the verb parts that begin each of the sentences (these are highlighted in red) in Resource [4-8-2] e.g. ‘I am…..’ could become ‘I am hungry’ etc.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-8-3] the Tutor asks the Learners to read out the parts of the four verbs, ‘to be,’ to sit,’ ‘to go,’ ‘to do,’ in the grid (these are in the top row of the grid in this resource and are highlighted in red). Teaching Tip: The Tutor explains that each column in the grid represents all the possible ways of expressing the verb that is at the top of the column highlighted in red (this is only for the present tense form of the parts of the verbs– see the Glossary for more about verbs).

3. Activity – Tutor explains that the word, ‘you’ appears twice in the verb grid because it can be used in sentences to refer to a singular or a plural subject – using these 2 example sentences: One for the singular person: ‘You are a student’. And one for a group of people (plural), ‘You are all students’.

4. Activity: Tutor asks Learners to read the verbs in the left-hand column of Resource [4-8-4] and then copy and write the parts of each verb from Resource in the right hand-column.

5. Teaching tip: As Learners work their way through this exercise ask some of them for their own sentence examples using these verb parts.

6. Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner recognises these verbs in sentences; ‘to be’, ‘to sit’, ‘to go’, ‘to do’, and their verb parts.

· The Learner associates the correct use of these verbs and their parts in sentences.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.19 Completing a sentence with the correct part of a verb.

· Activity 4.20 Breaking down the New Words

· Activity 4.21 Working with verbs to complete a sentence.

Exercise 9: Reading and Writing verbs.

[Exercise 9: Verbs and Sentences]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to combine and write the correct parts of verbs

· The Learner will be able to combine and write the correct parts of verbs in order to complete sentences.

Skills

Reading, writing,

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: The Tutor explains and demonstrates the concepts of verbs using Resource [4-9-1]

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-9-2] the Tutor asks the Learners to read out the parts of the 2 verbs, ‘to be,’ and ‘to sit,’ in the left-hand columns and then asks the learners to write and fill the gaps for the same parts of the verbs in the right-hand columns. Teaching Tip: The Tutor asks the Learners to break down the words that they are filling the gap with as they write them.

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-9-3] the Tutor asks the Learners to read out the parts of the 2 verbs, ‘to do,’ and ‘to go,’ in the left-hand columns and then asks the learners to write and fill the gaps for the same parts of the verbs in the right-hand columns. Teaching Tip: The Tutor asks the Learners to break down the words that they are filling the gap with as they write them.

4. Activity: Tutor reminds the Learners explains that the word, ‘you’ appears twice in the Resources [4-9-2] and [4-9-3]. One for the singular person: ‘You are a student,’ and one for a group of people (plural), ‘You are all students.’

5. Activity: Tutor asks Learners to complete the sentences in resource [4-9-4] using the correct missing verb parts.

6. Activity: Tutor asks Learners to complete the sentences in resource [4-9-5] using the correct missing verb parts in the left-hand column and then copy and write the whole sentence correctly in the right-hand column.

7. Teaching Tip: Tutors can direct Learners back to Resource [4-8-3] if they need a guide or template to follow.

8. Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner combines and writes the correct parts of verbs

· The Learner combines and writes the correct parts of verbs in order to complete sentences.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.19 Completing a sentence with the correct part of a verb.

· Activity 4.20 Breaking down the New Words

· Activity 4.21 Working with verbs to complete a sentence.

Exercise 10: Changing sentences to question sentences using verbs.

[Exercise 10: Verbs and Sentences]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to change a sentence using the verb ‘to be’ into a question sentence by swapping the verb parts around

· The Learner will be able to change sentences using the verbs, ‘to sit, ‘to go’ ‘to do’ into question sentences by adding the correct parts of the auxiliary verb, ‘to do.’

Skills

Reading, writing, listening

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

NB This Exercise is split into 4 sections that each work with a different verb and its parts to make question sentences

1. Activity: Tutor explains and demonstrates the concepts of verbs using Resource [4-10-1]

2. Activity: Tutor explains and demonstrates using the 2 examples in Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 1 for the verb ‘to be’ that in order to create/compose a question using the verb ‘to be’ all the Learner has to do is to swap the verb parts around.

3. e.g. ‘I am’ becomes ‘Am I?’ ‘She’ is becomes ‘Is she?’

Section 1 The Verb ‘to be’

1. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 1 for the verb ‘to be’, the Tutor reads out each verb part individually in the first column and then reads out its question form from the second column, emphasizing the swapping of the verb parts around that happens to change a sentence into a question sentence.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 1 for the verb ‘to be’ the Tutor asks the Learners to read out each verb part individually in the first column and then read out its question form from the second column, emphasizing the swapping of the verb parts around that happens to change a sentence into a question sentence.

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 1 for the verb ‘to be’ the Tutor asks the Learners to copy and write the verb parts from the first column into the third column and then to create questions in the fourth column by swapping these verbs parts around and making up and adding an end to the question sentence (as in the two given examples).

NB: In the next 3 sections of this exercise, we use the words ‘do’ or ‘does’ to make a question sentence using different parts of the verbs ‘to sit, ‘to go’ ‘to do’. When used in this way these words are part of the verb ‘to do’ and this helps the other verbs to be expressed in different tenses and situations. This kind of supporting role of one verb helping another to make sense – is called an auxiliary verb (see Glossary for Auxiliary Verb). There are many other examples of auxiliary verbs that we shall encounter as we progress through Citizen Literacy

NB: Break these activities up by asking the Learners for examples of these verb parts in their own sentences and question sentences. The Tutor reminds the Learners that the word, ‘you’ appears twice in a verb structure: one for the singular person: ‘You are a student,’ and one for a group of people (plural), ‘You are all students.’

Section 2 The Verb ‘to sit’

1. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 2 for the verb ‘to sit’, the Tutor reads out each verb part individually in the first column and then reads out its question form from the second column. The Tutor emphasises that in this case of the verb ‘to sit’ to convert the first column into a question we have to swap the verb parts around as before, but then we have to add another element to the verb ‘to sit’ to make it into a question sentence, we add the word ‘do’ or ‘does’, in this case it is another form of the verb ‘to do’. So, for example ‘I sit’ becomes ‘Do I sit?’ to change a sentence into a question sentence.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 2 for the verb ‘to sit’ the Tutor asks the Learners to read out each verb part individually in the first column and then read out its question form from the second column, emphasizing that adding the word ‘do’ or ‘does’ makes the question

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 2 for the verb ‘to sit’ the Tutor asks the Learners to copy and write the verb parts from the first column into the third column and then to create questions in the fourth column by swapping these verbs parts around and adding the word ‘do’ or ‘does’. 

Section 3 The Verb ‘to go’

1. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 3 for the verb ‘to go’, the Tutor reads out each verb part individually in the first column and then reads out its question form from the second column. The Tutor emphasises that in this case of the verb ‘to go’ to convert the first column into a question we have to swap the verb parts around as before, but then we have to add another element to the verb ‘to go’ to make it into a question sentence, we add the word ‘do’ or ‘does’. So, for example ‘She goes’ becomes ‘Does she go?’ to change a sentence into a question sentence.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 3 for the verb ‘to go’ the Tutor asks the Learners to read out each verb part individually in the first column and then read out its question form from the second column, emphasizing that adding the word ‘do’ or ‘does’ makes the question.

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 3 for the verb ‘to go’ the Tutor asks the Learners to copy and write the verb parts from the first column into the third column and then to create questions in the fourth column by swapping these verbs parts around and adding the word ‘do’ or does and making up.

Section 4 The Verb ‘to do’

1. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 4 for the verb ‘to do’, the Tutor reads out each verb part individually in the first column and then reads out its question form from the second column. The Tutor emphasises that in this case of the verb ‘to do’ to convert the first column into a question we have to swap the verb parts around as before, but then we have to add another element to the verb ‘to do’ make it into a question sentence, we add the word ‘do’ or ‘does’, in this case it is another form of the verb ‘to do’ itself! So, for example ‘You do’ becomes ‘Do you do?’ to change a sentence into a question sentence.

2. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 4 for the verb ‘to do’ the Tutor asks the Learners to read out each verb part individually in the first column and then read out its question form from the second column, emphasizing that adding the word ‘do’ or ‘does’ makes the question

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-10-2] in the Read, Speak, Write, grid 4 for the verb ‘to do’ the Tutor asks the Learners to copy and write the verb parts from the first column into the third column and then to create questions in the fourth column by swapping these verbs parts around and adding the word ‘do’ or ‘does’.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner changes a sentence using the verb ‘to be’ into a question sentence by swapping the verb parts around

· The Learner changes sentences into question sentences using the verbs, ‘to sit, ‘to go’ ‘to do’ by adding the correct parts of the auxiliary verb, ‘to do’.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.22 Working with verbs to complete a question sentence.

· Activity 4.23 Working with verbs. Handwriting.

Exercise 11: Alphabetical Order.

[Exercise 11: Alphabetical Order]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to read five new words from this lesson and previous lessons in alphabetical order using Resource [4-11-2].

· The Learner will be able to place a series of new words from this lesson and previous lessons into alphabetical order using Resource [4-11-3], using Resource [4-11-1] as a guide, if needed.

Skills

Reading, writing, alphabetical order

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor revises, explains, and demonstrates the concepts of alphabetical order to the students using Resources [4-11-1] and [4-11-2]

2. Teaching Tip – tutor reads through the alphabet in Resource in [4-11-1] highlighting to Learners why the words, ‘are’ from Resource [4-11-2] is first, ‘he’ is second and so on.

3. Activity: Using Resource [4-11-3] the Tutor asks the Learners to read and then write the words in the bullet point list in alphabetical order, noting that the first word in each list has been placed in alphabetical order as a clue for the Learners.

4. Activity: Using Resource [4-11-4] the Tutor asks the Learners to read and then write the words in the bullet point list in alphabetical order, noting that the first word in each list has been placed in alphabetical order as a clue for the Learners.

5. Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner reads five new words from this lesson and previous lessons in alphabetical order using Resource [4-11-2].

· The Learner places a series of new words from this lesson and previous lessons into alphabetical order using Resources {4-11-3] and [4-11-4], with Resource [4-11-1] as a guide, if necessary.

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

The web activities to support this exercise are listed below, please note not all exercises have a supporting web app activity. You can ask your learners to practice on some or all of the lesson exercise supporting web activities as a form of independent study / ‘home work’, before the next class.

· Activity 4.24 Putting words in alphabetical order.

Exercise 12: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, 3 and 4. Reading and writing sentences and question sentences

[Exercise 12: Sentence and Question sentence revision]

Learning Outcome

· The Learner will be able to read all the words in the grid in Resource [4-12-1], made up of words they will have learned in Lessons 1, 2, 3, and 4.

· The Learner will be able to compose and write two sentences in Resource [4-12-2] using words from Resource [4-12-1]

· The Learner will be able to compose and write two question sentences in Resource [4-12-3] using words from Resource [4-12-1].

Skills

Listening, speaking, reading, writing, breaking down.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5, Lesson 4.

· Tutor platform

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor asks Learners to read out the words in Resource [4-12-1]. Tutor Tip: Ask one Learner to read a row of words. Teaching Tip: The Tutor can advise the learners to try breaking down the sounds of any words they are unsure of.

2. Activity: The Tutor explains and demonstrates that the Learners have to choose words from the grid in Resource [4-12-1] to compose and write two sentences in Resource [4-12-2]. An example sentence has been created and written for them as a guide. Teaching Tip: Suggest that the Learner chooses one word from the row they have read out to include in a sentence or question sentence.

3. Activity: The Tutor explains and demonstrates that the Learners have to choose a series of words from the grid in Resource [4-12-1] to compose and write two question sentences in resource [4-12-3]. An example sentence has been created and written for them as a guide. Teaching Tip: Suggest that the Learner chooses one word from the row they have read out to include in a sentence or question sentence.

4. Activity: Tutor provides feedback.

Learner Activities Summary

· The Learner reads out all the words in the grid in Resource [4- 12- 1]

· The Learner composes and writes two sentences in Resource [4-12-2] using words from Resource [4-12-1]

· The Learner composes and writes two question sentences in Resource [4-12-3] using words from Resource [4- 12- 1].

Learner Web App Activities to Support this Exercise

· There are none for this Exercise

Exercise 13: Independent Study and Preparation for Lesson 5 Formative Assessment with the Learner Web App

To help prepare the Learners for the assessment you should ask them to practice on the Learner web app for Lesson 5, this will also help their confidence. Direct the Learners to these web app activities during Lesson 9 at the latest:

· Lesson 5 Activity 1 – Matching sounds to letters

· Lesson 5 Activity 2 – Recognising the names of capital letters.

· Lesson 5 Activity 3 – Spelling words

· Lesson 5 Activity 4 – Writing sentences and question sentences.

· Lesson 5 Activity 5 – Handwriting

· Lesson 5 Activity 6 – Reading and speaking words

· Lesson 5 Activity 7 – Reading and speaking sentences.

· Lesson 5 Activity 8 – Alphabetical order

Tell the Learners which web app activities to practice on before Lesson 5 class using the Learner web app – give them a printed list of the Learner web app lesson / activity reference numbers listed here.

Exercise 14: Word Bank

A Review exercise for each lesson

Final activity in class or for homework, so we review what the Learners have learned. This activity builds as Learners progress through the course, and we start to build up these review exercises.

There are three distinct activities for your Learners here:

Activity 1: At the end of each lesson ask your Learners to go to the Word Bank at the back of their Workbook that lists the words that are covered in each Lesson in columns from left to right ordered by the number of sounds that make up the words. There is an empty row below each of the rows of these words for Learners to copy and write the same words. When they write down their words ask them break them into their sounds and then read the whole word to you either at their desk on a 1:1 basis or in front of their fellow Learners if they confident enough. You may find that some Learners can read the words and that’s great, but you need to check that they know how to break these words into their sounds. This is a skill that will stand them in good stead when they are presented with words they do not know how to read.

Activity 2: At the end of each lesson Learners do the same as above but now they have to try to read their words from previous lessons as sight words, without breaking them down. If they don’t know them by sight, ask them to say the sounds and listen for the word. As we progress through Citizen Literacy, we are striving for your Learners to build on their sight words. This is one of many activities which will assist them in this.

Activity 3: In the Word Bank table section titled ‘My Words’ ask the Learners to try and repeat the above steps for words that they already know but have not been covered in the Lesson. Asking the learners to use the columns in the order of numbers of sounds that make up the words. If you have time you can start the process with each learner with a word of their choosing.

Exercise Resources – Class

· Lessons 1-5 Word Bank – This is at the back of the Part 1 Workbook Lessons 1-5.

Tutor Activities & Teaching Tips

1. Activity: Tutor to find time to do this with each Learner on 1:1 basis or in front of class

2. Teaching Tip: Final activity in class, so we review what the Learners have learned. This activity builds as Learners progress through course and we start to build up the review exercise, it acts as a review exercise for each lesson

Learner Activities

· Learners complete by writing words and sounding out individual sounds and then blended words to Tutor.

· Skills: Speaking, reading, and writing.


Lesson 4 Tutor Notes

OVERVIEW AND FOCUS OF LESSON 4

After revising Lessons 1, 2 and 3 in Exercises 1 and 2, Learners are introduced to several newer concepts: homophones and verbs as well as the six new words, ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘yes’, ‘there’, to break down and use in sentences and question sentences. Another Exercise is to highlight the phrases, ‘here is’, ‘here are’, ‘there is’, ‘there are’, and a final focus on Alphabet Awareness to best prepare them for their Formative Assessment in Lesson 5 and to build their reading and writing skills in general.

Homophones

 A new set of homophones (see Glossary) will be introduced in each Unit of Citizen Literacy, beginning in this Lesson with ‘to’, ‘too’, ‘two’, in Exercises 6 and 7. These words are commonly confused by a large amount of people, not just those with Literacy issues. Please mention this to your Learners to help build their confidence and explain to them that they will be introduced to each word by breaking it down into its sounds to show the similarities in sound. You will then show the use of these homophones in context to highlight the differences in spelling and meaning. Please practice this as much as possible when these words appear naturally in class,

e.g. “How many Learners have glasses on today?”

“Two.”
“Smashing! How do we spell the word two in this sentence?”

Verbs

The introduction of verbs in Exercise 8 is followed up in Exercises 9 and 10 (see Glossary) may seem daunting to you as a tutor if you are unfamiliar in teaching basic grammar points but the Lesson Plan with its Tutor Tips and Activities and the Tutor Videos, as well as these Tutor Notes will help you navigate your way around them.

As with homophones, a new set of verbs will be introduced in each Unit of Citizen Literacy (a Unit is composed of 5 lessons) beginning in this lesson with these four verbs, ‘to be’, ‘to sit’, ‘to do’, ‘to go.’ We introduce Learners to the present tense (see Glossary) of every verb initially as it is helpful for Learners to have a platform to talk about themselves because it helps them to relate their learning to their lives, then they can build on that as they work through the pronouns (see Glossary) to include their friends and family as they compose sentences. 

Past participles of verbs (see Glossary) are available as New Words or blended words and are introduced as stand-alone words initially and then are introduced as the simple past tense (see Glossary) later on in Citizen Literacy.

By this stage in the Citizen Literacy programme your Learners will have learned every part of these four verbs, apart from the words ‘goes’ and ‘does’. Please break down these parts of verbs ‘goes’ and ‘does’ for your learners as you teach them the present tense of the verbs, ‘to go’ and, ‘to do’. These verbs have been introduced here to build the Learners’ use of pronouns and to build their knowledge of sentence and question structures, especially when an auxiliary verb (see Glossary) such as, ‘to do’ is introduced and used in questions. The verb, ‘to sit’ has been included for your learners to practice their blending skills.

Formative Assessment Preparation

Once your Learners have worked their way through this Lesson with its revision exercises, new exercises focussing on verbs and homophones, new words and phrases, and finally the alphabet, they should be ready for their first Formative Assessment in Lesson 5. Please encourage them to go through Lesson 5 in the Learner web app as preparation for this and inform them that they will be sitting an assessment in their next lesson but not to worry as they have been well – prepared for this and they just need to look on it as a stepping stone to Unit 2 of the Citizen Literacy programme.

Please make sure your Learners know that the Formative Assessment will be an open-book assessment (see Glossary) and that they will be able to consult their Workbooks, if necessary. One of your jobs here is to eliminate the fear factor as much as possible and to encourage your Learners as much as possible.

Tutor Support Videos

Tutor support videos for each lesson can be found in the Tutor Resources of the Tutor Platform – these will be added in the near future.

Exercise 1: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, and 3. Reading and writing sentences.

In this Exercise, the Learners revise what they learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3 in reading, composing, and writing sentences. The four sentences they have to read in Resource [4-1-1] include blended words, new words, punctuation and words from the images we provide to aid comprehension and to offer assistance to the Learners when they are required to compose sentences and question sentences.

In Resource [4-1-2] Learners have to choose words from the word grid to include in their composition of two sentences and two question sentences. This is difficult for low-level Literacy learners, as there is so much required from them here: reading, comprehension, spelling, punctuation and writing sentences and question sentences that make sense and are in order! Give them time and, indeed, help them as much as they require.

Exercise 2: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, and 3. Reading and writing question sentences

In this Exercise, the Learners revise what they learned in Lessons 1, 2 and 3 in reading, writing, and composing question sentences. The four question sentences they have to read in Resource [4-2-1] include blended words, new words, punctuation and words from the images we provide to aid comprehension and to offer assistance to the Learners when they are required to compose sentences and question sentences.

In Resource [4-2-2] Learners have to choose words from the word grid to compose two sentences and two question sentences. This is difficult for low level Literacy learners, as there is so much required from them here: reading, comprehension, spelling, punctuation and writing sentences and question sentences that make sense and are in order! Give them time and, indeed, help them as much as they require.

Exercise 3: Introducing the new words: ‘go’, ‘no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, and breaking them down into their sounds to spell them.

These six words are the next set of commonly – used words that we introduce to the Learners. Breaking these words down will introduce Learners to new sounds that we will focus more on as we progress through Citizen Literacy. These words offer a good opportunity to see how words that are spelled similarly are sometimes pronounced differently: e.g. ‘go’ / ‘no’, and ‘to’ / ‘do’. Encourage your Learners, telling them that they will learn these words in a context to help them remember them, rather than just remembering the word on its own.

Exercise 4: Reading and Writing the new words, ‘go’, no’, ‘to’, ‘do’, ‘there’, ‘yes’, and Pair Work

We included this pair work exercise to help build the Learners confidence in reading, listening, speaking and writing and sharing their work with a fellow Learner. I have found that Learners, at any level of education, usually prefer to check their answers with the person they are sitting next to before attempting to raise their head above the parapet and perhaps offering a wrong answer.

Exercise 5: Read, match, and write sentences using the phrases; ‘here is’, ‘here are’, ‘there is’, ‘there are.’

This Exercise highlights the usage of these phrases, ‘here is’, ‘here are’, ‘there is’, and ‘there are,’ for singular and plural situations for your Learners and using the Resource [4-5-2] requires them to bring together two halves of sentences that use these phrases. Writing the sentences in Resource [4-5-3] helps to embed the singular and plural structure of these phrases. To augment these resources please feel free to include realia from the classroom or society in general to build your Learners’ awareness of these phrases, e.g.:

· There are seven cities in Scotland.

· Here is my pen.

Exercise 6: Reading and writing homophones, ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two’.

Even the word, homophone, is confusing for Learners! I always decode it like this,

Homophone: homo = same and phone = sound therefore ‘homophone’.

We have introduced homophones with possibly the most easily confused set of, ‘to’, ’too’, and ‘two’. So many people make mistakes with these. I found that the majority of my Leaners were aware of, ‘two,’ as a sight word for the number and, ‘to,’ as in, ‘I go to class,’

but most were totally unaware of the word, ‘too’ as in ‘too hot’ (amount) or as in ‘I went to the shop John came too’ (in addition). In this Exercise, we introduce all three words and their different meanings using images, sentences and questions in a range of formats to help build your Learners’ awareness.

Exercise 7: Reading and writing homophones, ‘to,’ ‘too’, ‘two. Pair Work

We included this Pair Work exercise to help build the Learners confidence in reading, listening, speaking and writing and sharing their work with a fellow Learner. This exercise builds on the Learners’ use of homophones, in individual words, in sentences and then in question sentences. As a bit of fun to get them up and out of their seats you can add a timer to these exercises if you wish and maybe even prizes!

Exercise 8: Introducing verbs and parts of verbs. Listening, Reading, and Writing.

We are aware that Tutors are usually very short for time, so we have tried to introduce verbs as simply and as clearly as possible for your Learners using Resources [4-8-1] and [4-8-2]. These Resources are duplicated in each verb exercise to help build your Learners’ awareness of what a verb is and how to use one in a sentence or a question sentence. I tell my Learners that they use these words all the time, every day and every time they speak or text! Please try and augment these Resources with examples drawn from the Learners’ own experiences and not just the given verbs in Resource [4-8-3].

As tutors, we are always emphasising words, please do this especially with verbs; demonstrate action verbs by sitting or standing or running in class, adhering to all Health & Safety rules! Sit at your desk and ask your Learners what you are doing as you write or type or look at your phone!! Sing a song or read something. So many options and as they guess the verbs, write them up on the board: to sit, to stand, to run, to write, to type, to look, to sing, to read.

Then you can ask them for some examples of verbs – an effective way to get Learners to talk using a lot of verbs is to ask them to detail everything they did before coming to class. They tell you and you note the verbs up on the board, e.g. to get up, to eat, to drink, to pray, to listen, to brush, to run, to do homework on the bus etc.… Only then, would I advise you to proceed to Resources [4-8-3] and [4-8-4]

Exercise 9: Reading and Writing verbs.

These gap-fill exercises help build your Learners’ awareness of how verbs are structured and how to use them in sentences. They will be using blended words, new words, verbs, and homophones – everything they have learned up to now in the Citizen Literacy programme to help them construct sentences using verbs. The cunning plan here is that all these parts merge in Lesson 4, like roads coming together as one Citizen Literacy motorway with Reading and Writing as the destination J.

Exercise 10: Changing sentences to question sentences using verbs.

These gap-fill exercises help build your Learners’ awareness of how verbs are structured and how to use them in question sentences. Composing questions using the verb, ‘to be’ is straightforward with the verb parts requiring to be swapped around, for example:

‘I am’ becomes > ‘Am I…?’ > ‘He is’ becomes > ‘Is he…?’. See Section 1 of Resource [4-10-2].

Other verbs require to have another verb, an auxiliary verb, (see Glossary) added to help questions sound and look correct in English. Sections 2, 3 and 4 of Resource [4-10-2] highlights to your Learners how to compose and write question sentences using the verbs, ‘to sit’, ‘to go’, and ‘to do’. I advise Tutors to go through these exercises first before asking the Learners for their own examples.

The verb ‘to do’ can seem awkward and a bit contrived in the present tense in sentences and question sentences. Please make your Learners aware of this – the main thing is that they understand how to construct and compose sentences and question sentences using it. It is acceptable if Learners’ sentences and question sentences using this verb are quite limited in scope.

Exercise 11 Alphabetical Order

Please feel free to personalise and localise these exercises which will help your Learners interact better with the learning resources.

Exercise 12: Revision of Lessons 1, 2, 3 and 4. Reading and writing sentences and question sentences

In this Exercise, the Learners revise all aspects of their Citizen Literacy programme to date by choosing words from the word grid and composing two sentences and two question sentences, each using one of these words. This is a difficult task for low-level Literacy learners as there is so much required from them: reading, comprehension, spelling, punctuation, writing sentences and question sentences in order and make sense. Remember to give them time and, indeed, help them as much as they require.